Vision Pan-America, The Pan-American Journal of Ophthalmology, is the official publication of the Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology. The publication is particularly interested in receiving manuscripts that are short, state-of-the-art review papers that will be of interest to the practicing PAAO member ophthalmologist. In addition to review articles, the publication is interested in articles on new surgical techniques, medical therapies, and case reports that emphasize clinicopathologic correlations.
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General Instructions for Online Submissions
As of January 2012, all submissions to the Vision Pan-America, The Pan-American Journal of Ophthalmology, need to be uploaded electronically at http://journals.sfu.ca/paao through the Open Journal System software. Candidates must log in as Author with username and password. To obtain a username and password, please REGISTER.
If, for some reason, you are unable to access the system, please contact the Editorial Office by email (email@example.com) or by phone (817-275-7553) with Terri Grassi.
All Editorial communications are done by email to the corresponding author. It is the corresponding author’s responsibility to keep all contact information (address, institution, phone number and email address) currently available updated.
Before submitting online, please have the following files ready for upload: cover letter, copyright form(s), financial disclosure form(s), manuscript (including title page, abstract and references), tables, a separate file for each figure submitted and a separate file containing all the figure legends.
If submitting a revision, please include a response file (cover letter) with your answers or changes made in response to the issues raised by the editor, reviewers and/or the editorial office. This file is mandatory, when changes are made. The corresponding author must detail all the changes made, being as specific as possible (note paragraph, line, reference changed).
When submitting a revised file, please make sure to delete the old version and upload the revised one.
Once you “Submit to Journal Office” you will get an acknowledgement from the Editorial Office. An email will advise of the manuscript number that should be referred to in all communications regarding your submission.
Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval
All papers involving human subjects, animals, or privileged health information must indicate approval by an established Institutional Review Board. The following disclaimer should be included in the body of the paper: “This study was evaluated and approved by the Institutional Review Board or Ethical Committee of (name of institution)”.
In countries or situations where an IRB is not available, the authors should confirm that the study and data collection comply with local legislation and with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (JAMA 2000;284:3043-3045).
Downloadable forms for Authors
Signatures of authors and co-authors must be original. Electronic signatures are not acceptable for legal and ethical reasons.
The entire process is electronic; therefore, all forms should be scanned and uploaded with your submission. If this is not possible, you may fax them (with designated manuscript number and identification) to 817-275-3961 at the Journal Editorial Office with attention to Terri Grassi.
1. Form for Authorship Criteria Statement
Vision Pan-America adheres to the Uniform Requirements set by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (more details on http://www.icmje.org) for authorship and to World Association of Medical Editors (WAME www.wame.org) for editorial management.
To qualify for authorship, authors must make substantial contributions to the intellectual content of the paper in each of the three suggested categories:
Category 1: concept and design, data acquisition or data analysis and interpretation.
Category 2: drafting the manuscript and or critical revision of the manuscript.
Category 3: statistical analysis, obtaining funding, administrative, technical or material support, or supervision.
Vision Pan-America does not restrict the number of authors; however, in some exceptional conditions, the Editor may require that the number of authors be reduced if authorship criteria are not met.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for submission and all communication with the journal regarding that submission. He must advise the editors and editorial office of the receipt of the authorship criteria forms from all authors and confirm that all authors qualify; acknowledge receipt of and upload financial disclosure and copyright forms from all authors; and advise editors whether the submission was funded or not by national or international agencies.
All statements regarding study group authorship should be made in the cover letter by the corresponding author. However, if he/she is not the chair, a cover letter a statement from the study chair that the group authorship as stated on the cover page and/or members of responsible writing committee are both correct should be included.
Once a manuscript has been submitted, the order of authorship (including adding or removing authors) cannot be changed without written request to the Editorial Office from the corresponding author. Specifically, if an author is removed, a letter from that author agreeing to his/her removal is required. The new copyright form must show the title and authors’ names at the top of the form in the order they should appear in print and include original signatures from each. If the authors are not able to agree among themselves on authorship changes, the paper should be withdrawn.
DO NOT SUBMIT AUTHORSHIP CHANGES WITH PROOF CHANGES OF THE REVISED FILES.
Download the form at http://journals.sfu.ca/paao
2. Copyright Assignment Form
The corresponding author collects all signed copyrights and submits them with the manuscript or, if absolutely necessary, faxes them to the editorial office at the time of the submission.
Download the form at http://journals.sfu.ca/paao
3. Financial Interest Disclosure
Conflict of interest exists when an author (or the author’s institution), reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that can inappropriately influence (bias) his or her actions (such relationships are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties). Not all relationships represent true conflict of interest. More details at ICMJE Conflict of Interest web page at http://www.icmje.org/ethical_4conflicts.html.
Download the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest here.
GUIDELINES FOR PREPARING A SCIENTIFIC MANUSCRIPT FOR SUBMISSION TO VISION PAN-AMERICA
Vision Pan-America has adopted the following guidelines related to the publication of biomedical research from the original work of influential editorial groups such as:
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) âï¿½¨Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2010;1:42-58.
World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) at http://www.wame.org
Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) âï¿½¨COPE Guidelines (including Code of Conduct; Guidelines for Retracting Articles; Ethical Editing for New Editors) at www.cope.org
Council of Science Editors (CSE) âï¿½¨CSE's White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications at www.councilscenceeditors.org
EQUATOR Network at http://www.equator-network.org
To be published in Vision Pan-America, the text of observational and experimental original articles must be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Other types of articles, such as case reports, reviews, and editorials need to be formatted differently. A structured abstract in two languages should accompany the text.
Double-space all portions of the manuscript — including the title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, individual tables, and legends to facilitate printing for reviewing and editing.
Authors should number all of the pages of the manuscript consecutively, beginning with the title page, to facilitate the editorial process.
Reporting Guidelines for Specific Study Designs
The general requirements listed in the next section relate to reporting essential elements for all study designs. Authors are encouraged also to consult reporting guidelines relevant to their specific research design. A good source of reporting guidelines is the EQUATOR Network http://www.equator-network.org/home/.
A. Title Page
The title page should have the following information:
1. Article title: Authors should include all information in the title that will make electronic retrieval of the article both sensitive and specific.
2. Authors’ names and institutional affiliations: Vision Pan-America publishes only one author’s highest academic degree.
3. The name of the department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed.
4. Contact information for corresponding authors: Name, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the author responsible for correspondence about the manuscript.
5. If existent, source(s) of support in the form of grants, equipment, drugs, or all of these.
6. A running head (first author surname and initials, followed by up to four words of the title) with no more than 40 characters (including letters and spaces) at the foot of the title page.
Structured abstracts (Purpose, Design, Methods, Results, Conclusions and Financial Disclosure) are preferred for original research and systematic reviews. The abstract should provide the context or background for the study and should state the study’s purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), principal conclusions, and funding sources.
Articles on clinical trials should contain abstracts that include the items that the CONSORT group has identified as essential http://www.consort-statement.org.
Vision Pan-America is a multilingual journal, publishing papers in English, Portuguese, Spanish and French; however, for indexing purposes and better diffusion of the scientific information, Structured Abstracts must also be provided in English along with one in the original language, when other than English.
Provide five key words associated with your paper. The key words must be cited as listed in the MESH-Medical Subject Headings from the National Library of Medicine.
Provide a brief context or background for the study (that is, the nature of the problem and its significance). State the specific purpose or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study or observation; the research objective is often more sharply focused when stated as a question.
The Methods section should include only information that was available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was being written; all information obtained during the study belongs in the Results section.
Selection and Description of Participants
Describe the selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly, including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population.
Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer’s name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow others to reproduce the results. Cite references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well-known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give the reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration.
Authors submitting review manuscripts should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.
Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). References for the design of the study and statistical methods should be to standard works when possible (with pages stated). Specify the computer software used.
Present results in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations. Do not repeat all the data in the tables or illustrations in the text; emphasize or summarize only the most important observations. Extra or supplementary materials and technical detail can be placed in an appendix.
When data are summarized in the Results section, give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess supporting data.
Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them in the context of the totality of the best available evidence. Do not repeat in detail data or other information given in the Introduction or the Results section. For experimental studies, it is useful to begin the discussion by briefly summarizing the main findings, then explore possible mechanisms or explanations for these findings, compare and contrast the results with other relevant studies, state the limitations of the study, and explore the implications of the findings for future research and for clinical practice.
Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data.
Avoid claiming priority or alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses when warranted, but label them clearly as such.
General Considerations Related to References
Readers should be provided with direct references to original research sources whenever possible.
Avoid using abstracts as references. References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as “in press” or “forthcoming”; authors should obtain written permission to cite such papers as well as verification that they have been accepted for publication.
Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as “unpublished observations” with written permission from the source.
Avoid citing a “personal communication” unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text.
Editors will check the accuracy of all reference citations; thus, citation errors sometimes appear in the published version of articles. To minimize such errors, references should be verified using either an electronic bibliographic source, such as PubMed or print copies from original sources. Authors are responsible for checking that none of the references cite retracted articles except in the context of referring to the retraction. For articles published in journals indexed in MEDLINE, the ICMJE and Vision Pan-America consider PubMed the authoritative source for information about retractions.
Reference Style and Format
The Uniform Requirements style for references is based largely on an American National Standards Institute style adapted by the NLM for its databases. Authors should consult NLM’s Citing Medicine for information on its recommended formats for a variety of reference types. Authors may also consult sample references, a list of examples extracted from or based on Citing Medicine for easy use by the ICMJE audience; these sample references are maintained by NLM.
References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in parentheses. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in the list of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE, posted by the NLM on the Library's Web site.
Type or print each table with double-spacing on a separate sheet of paper. Number tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each. Do not use internal horizontal or vertical lines. Give each column a short or an abbreviated heading. Authors should place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain all nonstandard abbreviations in footnotes, and use the following symbols, in sequence:
*, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, **, ††, ‡‡, §§, ||||, ¶¶, etc.
Be sure that each table is cited in the text.
H. Illustrations (Figures)
Figures should be either professionally drawn and photographed, or submitted as photographic-quality digital prints. In addition to requiring a version of the figures suitable for printing, Vision Pan-America now asks authors for electronic files of figures in a format (for example, JPEG or GIF) that will produce high-quality images in the Web version of the journal; authors should review the images of such files on a computer screen before submitting them to be sure they meet their own quality standards.
For x-ray films, scans, and other diagnostic images, as well as pictures of pathology specimens or photomicrographs, send sharp, glossy, black-and-white or color photographic prints, usually 127 x 173 mm (5 x 7 inches) or high quality jpeg or TIFF images.
Photographs of potentially identifiable people must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.
Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they are cited in the text. If a figure has been published previously, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the figure. Permission is required irrespective of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public domain.
Images in PowerPoint format are not acceptable nor are images embedded in word documents. Each image must be submitted as a separate file.
Legends for Illustrations (Figures)
Type or print out legends for illustrations using double spacing, on a separate page, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations.
Legends of figures must be submitted in a separated word format file.
I. Units of Measurement
Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, or liter) or their decimal multiples.
Temperatures should be in degrees Celsius.
Drug concentrations may be reported in either SI or mass units, but the alternative should be provided in parentheses where appropriate.
J. Abbreviations and Symbols
Use only standard abbreviations. Avoid abbreviations in the title of the manuscript. The spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of measurement.
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